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Academic Integrity - Referencing, Citation & Avoiding Plagiarism: Secondary sources

This guide explains what referencing and citation is and how to use the APA, Chicago, Harvard, MLA and Vancouver Styles. It includes a short interactive tutorial on each style.

Secondary sources

When referring to the work of an author whom you have read in another source, but not read directly yourself, list the full details of the secondary source in the reference listing and in your in-text citation use the term "cited in" or "citing". In the reference list format the secondary reference as you would any reference of that type. For example a journal article below is shown.

Reference: Author Last name, Initials. (Year) 'Article title', Journal Title, Volume(Issue), pp. page numbers.  


Seeberg, P. (2013) 'The Arab Uprisings and the EU's migration policies - the cases of Egypt, Libya, and Syria', Democracy and Security, 9(1-2), pp. 157-176.


  • Secondary Author Last name (Year, page no.) cites Original Author's surname (Year)....
  • (Original Author Last name, Year, cited in Secondary Author Last name, Year, Page no.)


  • Seeberg (2013, p. 160) cites Waltham's work on migration (2010)...
  • (Waltham, 2010, cited in Seeberg, 2013, p. 10)...