Skip to main content

Academic Integrity - Referencing, Citation & Avoiding Plagiarism: Encyclopaedia and dictionaries

This guide explains what referencing and citation is and how to use the APA, Chicago, Harvard, MLA and Vancouver Styles. It includes a short interactive tutorial on each style.

Encyclopaedia and Dictionaries with authors and editors (printed)

Reference: Author Last name, Initials. (Year) 'Entry Title', in Editors Last name, Initials (eds) Title. Edn. Place of publication: Publisher. Series and Volume (if available).

Example: Murphy, A.J. (2002) 'Byzantine', in Pearsall and Trumble (eds) Oxford English Reference Dictionary. 2nd edn. Oxford. Oxford University Press.

In-Text-Citation:

  • Author Last name (Year, page number)
  • (Author Last name, Year, page number)

Example:

  • According to Murphy (2002, p. 253) 'Byzantine' is defined as ...
  • 'Byzantine'  is defined as 'A term used to describe the art associated with the eastern Roman empire, which commenced with the emperor Constantine's foundation of his capital, Constantinople, on the site of the small town of Byzantion 324–30.' (Murphy, 2002, p. 253).


Still unsure what in-text citation and referencing mean? Check here


Still unsure why you need to reference all this information? Check here
 

Online Encyclopaedia and Dictionaries

Reference: Author Last name, Initials. (Year) 'Entry title' in Editors Last name, Initials (eds) Title. Series and volume. Available at: url (Accessed day month year).

Example: Brandon, S. (2008) 'Barry, James (c. 1799–1865)' in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Available at: https://www.oxforddnb.com/view/10.1093/ref:odnb/9780198614128.001.0001/odnb-9780198614128-e-1563 (Accessed 22 July 2020).

In-Text-Citation:

  • Author Last name (Year)
  • (Author Last name, Year)

Example:

  • Brandon (2008) describes how Margaret Bulkley disguises herself as a man to become the surgeon James Barry.
  • Margaret Bulkley disguises herself as a man to become the surgeon James Barry (Brandon, 2008).

 

In the example above there are no editors or series and volume details, therefore these are not included in the reference.


Still unsure what in-text citation and referencing mean? Check here


Still unsure why you need to reference all this information? Check here

Online Encyclopaedia and Dictionaries - no authors or editors

Reference: 'Entry title' (Year) Title. Available at: url (Accessed day month year).

Example: 'Canadian Shield' (2020) Encyclopaedia Britannica. Available at: https://www.britannica.com/place/Canadian-Shield (Accessed 2 June 2020).

In-Text-Citation:

  • 'Entry Title' (Year)
  • ('Entry Title', Year)

Example:

  • The 'Canadian Shield' (2020) is composed of crystalline rock. 
  • This landmass is composed of crystalline rock ('Canadian Shield', 2020).


Still unsure what in-text citation and referencing mean? Check here


Still unsure why you need to reference all this information? Check here

Creative Commons license