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Academic Integrity - Referencing, Citation & Avoiding Plagiarism: Plagiarism Defined: Lecture Notes

This guide explains what referencing and citation is and how to use the APA, Chicago, Harvard, MLA and Vancouver Styles. It includes a short interactive tutorial on each style.

Lecture Notes

Reference: #. Author Surname Initials. Title of lecture [unpublished lecture notes]. Institution; Year Month Day when notes provided, [cited Year Month Day if notes online] url if available


26. Keane, SF. Emergency care in Ireland [unpublished lecture notes]. University College Dublin; 2017 May 31  [cited 2017 June 20]. Available from:


Use a superscript number (like this: ¹) in the text at the place where you are indicating that you are citing from a source.


Emergency care in Ireland is fragmented and in need of major investment.26


Note: It is recommended that if you are quoting information in lecture notes it is better to verify the information from a book or other reliable source and then reference that source.


Still unsure what in-text citation and referencing mean? Check here

Still unsure why you need to reference all this information? Check here



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