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Academic Integrity - Referencing, Citation & Avoiding Plagiarism: Personal Communications

This guide explains what referencing and citation is and how to use the APA, Chicago, Harvard, MLA and Vancouver Styles. It includes a short interactive tutorial on each style.

Personal Communications

Reference: Sender/speaker/author, Initials. (Year) Medium of communication with/to Receiver of communication, Day Month.

Example 1: Hennessey, T. (2015) Conversation with Margaret Cosgrave, 28 December.

Example 2: Hennessey, T (2015) Email to Margaret Cosgrave, 25 June.


  • Author Last name (Year)
  • (Author Last name, Year)


  • According to Hennessey (2015)
  • As has been argued (Hennessey, 2015)


Still unsure what in-text citation and referencing mean? Check here

Still unsure why you need to reference all this information? Check here

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