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Academic Integrity - Referencing, Citation & Avoiding Plagiarism: Secondary sources

This guide explains what referencing and citation is and how to use the APA, Chicago, Harvard, MLA and Vancouver Styles. It includes a short interactive tutorial on each style.

Secondary sources

It is always better to read and cite the original source of your information. If that is not possible then cite the item as a secondary source ("quoted in...") a source that refers to the work of someone else. The original and secondary source must both be listed. The example shows a book quoted in another book.

In-Text Citation: Use a superscript number (like this: ¹) in the text at the place where you are indicating that you are citing from a source.

Footnote: #. Author First name/Initial Last name, Title of Book (Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication). page number(s), quoted in Author First name/Initial Last name, Title of Book (Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication), page number(s).

Example:

1.John V. Mitchell, More for Asia: Rebalancing World Oil and Gas (London: Chatham House, 2010), 11, quoted in Paul Ekins, Michael J. Bradshaw, and Jim Watson, Global Energy: Issues, Potentials, and Policy Implications (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015), 257.

Reference: Author Last name, First name. Title: Subtitle. Edition. Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication. Quoted in Author First name Last name. Title of Book. Place of publication: Publisher, Year, page number(s). 

Example:

Mitchell, John V.  More for Asia: Rebalancing World Oil and Gas. London: Chatham House, 2010. Quoted in Paul Eakins, Michael J. Bradshaw, and Jim Watson. Global Energy: Issues, Potentials, and Policy Implications. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015, 257.

 

Still unsure what in-text citation and referencing mean? Check here.

Still unsure why you need to reference all this information? Check here.

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