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Chicago Style Guide: Quotation

This guide explains how to use the Chicago Style. It includes a short interactive tutorial.

Chicago Style - quotation

The Chicago Style dictates that when using another's exact words, known as direct quotation, the quotation should either be placed in quotation marks (for a short quotation) or set out in a separate paragraph of text, indented about half an inch from the margin. In both cases they should be followed by a superscript number (like this: ²), their source referenced in a footnote and a full reference included in the reference list. Footnotes can be placed at the bottom of the page.

Short quotations - less than 100 words

Short quotations are generally held to be less than a hundred words (six to eight lines in a typewritten manuscript), in the Chicago Style. An example of a short direct quotation would be

The findings suggest children have a "high level of enjoyment" ³, while exercising with the system as indicated by the positive responses to all three questions.

Long quotations - 100 words or more

Long quotations in the Chicago Style are held to be one hundred words or more (at least six to eight lines in a typewritten manuscript). These are laid out in a separate paragraph of text and indented about half an inch from the left margin. No inverted commas/inverted commas are included. An example of a long quotation would be

In their research on rehabilitation using Wobbleballs, Fitzgerald and her team conclude that:

The findings suggest children have a high level of enjoyment while exercising with the system as indicated by the positive responses to all three questions. The fourth question collected some feedback from children and while most provided positive comments a small number of children mentioned that the wobble board was “difficult to control” or “hard to use”. We must therefore investigate some easier methods to control the game as an option for some children. Future research is needed to investigate the benefits of the system as an exercise intervention for children and to examine how training using Wobbleball could be integrated into the existing physical education curriculum in schools.¹

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