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Academic Integrity - Referencing, Citation & Avoiding Plagiarism: What is in-text citation?

This guide explains what referencing and citation is and how to use the APA, Chicago, Harvard, MLA and Vancouver Styles. It includes links to each style guide.

What is in-text citation?

An In-text Citation is when you acknowledge the sources you have used within the body of your writing or assignment. In-text citations are also known as citations and should be used when you

  • use direct quotations (exact Words) from an original source


  • paraphrase or summarise information from a source (taking the thoughts and ideas of someone else and reworking them)


  • include the work of another person or institution in your assignment (for example images, tables, computer code, words etc.)


Each Citation Style has different rules about what these in-text citations should look like. Use this guide to learn how to cite with Harvard, APA, MLA, Vancouver or Chicago Style.

What is a reference?

Referencing is the process of acknowledging in detail all the information sources (books, journal articles, images, data, webpages etc.) that you have included in your in-text citations. References form a list with full details of sources placed at the end of an assignment or paper allowing your readers to directly consult the sources you have used.