Academic Integrity - Referencing, Citation & Avoiding Plagiarism: Quotation
Directly quoting the text
When using the exact words of another person it is essential that you indicate this in your text. The correct way to do this is by including quotation marks and usually a page number (depending on your reference style).
Below is an example of how to quote in your text correctly.
The following ORIGINAL text has been taken from the book The Google Story.
“Not since Gutenberg invented the modern printing press more than 500 years ago, making books and scientific tomes affordable and widely available to the masses, has any new invention empowered individuals, and transformed access to information, as profoundly as Google.”
From: Vise, David A. (2005) The Google Story. Macmillan: London
Example of correct quotation
Google has revolutionised the way people access information in today’s information technological society.
“Not since Gutenberg invented the modern printing press ... has any new invention empowered individuals, and transformed access to information, as profoundly as Google.” (Vise, 2005 p. 1)
Google’s easy to use search engine enables users to access information quickly and efficiently through various options, including Google Scholar and Google Book Search.
This is the correct way to use a direct quote because
- the direct quote is in quotation marks
- the page number has been included
When to use quotations
- when the exact words are relevant to your argument
- when something is expressed in a unique way
- when rewriting would cause loss of impact
Quotations should be used sparingly and should not be the dominant feature of your essay. However, some short quotations can make a strong impact. When using someone’s words you must use quotation marks, and state precisely where the quotation comes from i.e. cite the author, date and page number at the end of the quotation.
How to use quotations
Place a short quotation into the text (fewer than 40 words) using double quotation marks. Longer quotations should begin on a new line, and be in a free-standing block of typewritten lines.
Place the passage you are using in quotation marks, and give the author/source of information. Within a quotation use three dots (…) to indicate omitted words.
Example using APA Style
He stated that Google has "empowered individuals and transformed access to information" (Vise, 2005 p. 1).
Vise (2005) argues that Google has "empowered individuals and transformed access to information" ( p. 1).