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Harvard Style Guide: In-text citations

This guide explains how to use the Harvard Style. It includes a short tutorial.

In-text citations

When you cite, you are giving brief (abbreviated) details of the work that you are quoting or referring to in your text.  Harvard in-text citing is author-date format i.e.  (author, year). You will need to give page numbers when you are quoting, summarising or paraphrasing specific content from a work. Included below are examples of how to cite various works.


One author

(Smith, 2021)

Page numbers

(smith, 2021, p. 11) OR (Smith, 2021, pp. 11-12)

Up to three authors

(Smith, Jones and Ryan, 2022)

Four or more authors

(Murphy et al., 2019)

Corporate authors

Cite the full name (or initials if well known)

(UCD, 2021)

Item with no author

Use the title in italics

(Health of the nation, 2011)

Citing multiple sources

separate with semicolon and list in chronological order with the earliest first. If there is more than one source in the same year list them alphabetically by author

(Smith, 2013; Jones, 2015; Murphy, 2015)

Multiple items by the same author in the same year

Use lower-case letters in alphabetical order to differentiate between them.

(Murphy, 2015a) (Murphy, 2015b)

Different editions of the same work

Put the earliest date first

(Murphy, 2015; 2016)

Multiple works by the same author

Put the earliest date first

(Jones, 2016; 2017)

Source with no date

(Murphy, no date) or (Murphy, n.d.)

Secondary source citation

(Waltham, 2010, cited in Seeberg, 2013, p. 10)