Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

Harvard Style Guide: Music/ audio

This guide explains how to use the Harvard Style. It includes a short tutorial.

Musical scores

Reference: Composer last name, Initials. (Year) Title of score. Notes. Place of publication: Publisher.

Example:

Handel, G. F. (1912) Alexander's feast : ode. Edited, and the organ or pianoforte accompaniment arranged by Vincent Novello. London: Novello.

In-Text-Citation:

  • (Author Last name, Year)
  • Author Last name (Year)...

Example:

  • Handel's score is beautifully arranged by Vincent Novello (Handel, 1912)...

 

Still unsure what in-text citation and referencing mean? Check here.


Still unsure why you need to reference all this information? Check here

Music streaming or subscription services

Reference: Band/Artists Last name, Initials. (Year of release) 'Title of song', Title of Album. Available at: Name of streaming or subscription service (Accessed Day Month Year).

Example: Fitzgerald, E. (1964) 'My Last Affair', Live in Japan. Available at: Spotify (Accessed 20 August 2020). 

In-Text-Citation:

  • Artist Last name/Band name (year)
  • (Artist Last name/Band name, year)

Example:

  • Fitzgerald (1964) sings about the uselessness of starting any new relationship…..
  • In the song, 'My Last Affair' she sings about the hurt caused in love (Fitzgerald, 1964).

 

Still unsure what in-text citation and referencing mean? Check here.


Still unsure why you need to reference all this information? Check here

CD or vinyl records

Reference: Artist Last name, Initials. (Year) 'Title of track', Title of Album [CD] or [Vinyl]. Place of distribution: Distribution company.

Example: Armstrong, L. (1987) 'Put 'em down blues', Hot five & hot seven : 1925-1928 [CD]. France: Joker Tonverlag AG.

In-Text-Citation:

  • Artist Last name (Year)
  • (Artist Last name, Year)

Example:

  • In his track 'Put 'em down blues' Armstrong (1987)....
  • 'Put 'em down blues' (Armstrong, 1987) is typical of the sound this artist can create with his ensembles...

Note: If referring to a whole album, cite as above, simply leaving out the 'Title track' element of the reference.

 

 

Still unsure what in-text citation and referencing mean? Check here.

Still unsure why you need to reference all this information? Check here

Creative Commons license